Monday, April 2, 2012


Sunday, April 1, 2012

AI - education

Pada tahun 2006-2007 Projek Milenium melakukan satu kajian global yang direka untuk mengenal pasti kemungkinan beberapa kemungkinan untuk masa depan pendidikan. senario 2030 dibentangkan mengenai Perkembangan teknologi berdasarkan :

1. National programs for improving collective intelligence ( Program bertaraf kebangsaan untuk meningkatkan kecerdasan kolektif

Some richer as well as lower income countries have (by this year of 2030) made improving collective intelligence a national goal; this includes improving individual as well as intelligence for their nations-as-who

2. Just in time knowledge and learning ( tahu pengetahuan dan pembelajaran pada masa itu juga)

Rote learning has diminished in importance. With ubiquitous computing and education for life-long learning, 'just in time knowledge' has become the norm. Reasoning, problem solving, and learning strategies form the core focus of public educational systems.

3. Individualized education (Pendidikan individu)

Through tests of various sorts, including simulations, the needs of individual students are being assessed and curricula and instructional methods are tailored to individual students. Twenty years ago this used to be called 'special needs' but now it is recognized that all students have special needs and those needs are being largely met in many places in the world.

4. Use of simulations (Penggunaan simulasi)

In 2030, virtual reality simulations with programmed learning are available and used internationally, accounting for nearly a third of the tele-educational experience in elementary and secondary schools. These simulations allow people to progress at their own pace alone or in groups. They are designed on the basis of insights derived from cognitive science. They diagnose and adapt to the individual’s and/or group’s learning style and need for hints and other forms of prompts. This is a means of providing artificial experience and social experimentation in a safe environment

5. Continuous evaluation of individual learning processes designed to prevent people from growing unstable and/or becoming mentally ill. (Penilaian berterusan proses pembelajaran individu yang direka khas untuk mencegah pengguna menjadi tidak betul)

The objective of these programs which have appeared in several countries is to identify persons who seem likely in later life to exhibit antisocial behavior including terrorist activities and violent criminality. Special nurturing programs are provided to people identified in this way to help them from becoming unstable or mentally ill in later life.

6. Improved individual nutrition (meningkatkan keperluan kehidupan pengguna)

Self-administered diagnostic tests identify individualized nutrition requirements for improved cognitive development. These tests are used in the more affluent areas and are beginning to be used in lower income areas with government and insurance company support.

7. Genetically increased intelligence (tingkatkan risikan (ilmu teknologi) genetik/warisan pada anak-anak )

Genes that contribute to increasing intelligence and learning have been identified and used by many parents in the upper and middle classes of the world to change the potential intelligence of their future children. Treatments have been subsidized for many people in the poorer regions.

8. Use of global on-line simulations as a primary social science research tool (utamakan penggunaan simulasi dalam talian global sebagai alat penyelidikan sains sosial )

Virtual realities like Second Life (which in 2006 had more than a million and a half inhabitants) are used by leading cognitive scientists, curriculum experts, behavioral scientists to evolve the equivalent of natural laws for social behavior and new tele-virtual educational simulations. In these e-universes, people act as societies, form laws, build new cultures and provide a means to experiment with the glue of society without concerns that might accompany human experimentation.

9. Use of public communications to reinforce pursuit of knowledge (Menggunakan komunikasi awam untuk mengukuhkan usaha menimba ilmu)

In 2030, social marketing of learning concepts or memes is widespread. Some of the themes have been: Intelligence is Sexy; Knowledge is Cool; Knowledge Matters; Ignorance Equals Poverty, and other such concepts. Public media leaders often meet with educational leaders, cognitive scientists, and entertainers to discuss promoting the message that learning is a central pursuit of life.

10. Portable artificial intelligence devices (Peranti mudah alih kecerdasan buatan - brain chips)

Most people carry tiny computers that contain extensive personal memories, and interact with their owners in human fashion. Meet a person on the street and the ear buds whisper on the basis of facial pattern recognition, ‘That’s Billy Johnson who you met at a party three years ago.' He is a pilot and his wife's name is Angie.' More seriously, the machine also participates in personal decision making and on the spot need for information. Some individuals have been technologically augmented with nanobots, brain chips, and nanotech transceivers in clothing.

11. Complete mapping of human synapses to discover how learning occurs and thereby develop strategies for improvement of learning Pemetaan lengkap sinaps manusia untuk mengetahui bagaimana pembelajaran berlaku dan sekali gus membangunkan strategi untuk penambahbaikan pembelajaran

Just as the gene was decoded so was the connection pattern of the synapses in the human brain. From this complex map came information about cognitive development, intelligence, emotion, how to design artificially intelligent machines, and ultimately how to improve the speed and depth of learning.

12. Means for keeping adult brains healthier for longer periods (pemikiran sihat untuk jangka masa yang lebih lama)

In our time (2030) we have techniques for keeping adult brains healthier during the aging process. For example, adult neural stem cells have been cloned and injected into adult brains to keep them far healthier for longer times then formerly believed possible, making old age learning and an older knowledge-based work force possible.

13. Chemistry for brain enhancement

Kimia untuk peningkatan otak

Penyelidikan kimia otak telah membawa kepada ubat yang selamat yang akan meningkatkan kecerdasan, meningkatkan daya ingatan, meningkatkan tahap tumpuan, meningkatkan ketajaman penglihatan, dan tangan / koordinasi mata.

Brain chemistry research has led to safe drugs that enhance intelligence, improve memory, increase attention span, improve visual acuity, and hand/eye coordination.

14. Web 17.0 ( Menjelang 2030 dengan trend ke arah integrasi data )

By 2030 the trend toward data integration on the Web that started around the turn of the century (Google Earth, Wikipedia, the MIT course material) has progressed to the point that a large part of the world's knowledge - data, analyses, discussions - has been integrated into Semantic Web 3.0. That structure is organized according to a logical framework of concepts (both precise and fuzzy ones), has a natural language interface, is dynamically maintained, and contains an intelligent subsystem that 'understands' the logical rules that govern the interactions of entities. The interface makes heavy use of virtual reality type graphic techniques for presenting knowledge and processes.

15. Integrated life-long learning systems pembelajaran sepanjang hayat sistem

Today (2030) education ranges across all ages groups from pre-natal programs to programs for the elderly that provide knowledge, work, and leisure enjoyment.

16. Programs aimed at eliminating prejudice and hate Program yang bertujuan untuk menghapuskan prasangka dan benci

Our psychologists (2030) believe that many wars and extremist activities are fueled by overt or subtle teachings of parents, peers, and teachers. Significant efforts have been made to reduce these influences in the education of young people.

17. e- Teaching

Most of the poorer areas, as well as the more affluent ones use global outsourcing for e-teachers on-demand. These e-teachers are increasingly artificial constructs using artificial intelligence, rather than live humans.

18. Smarter than human computers

Machines exist today (2030) which are clearly smarter than humans in any way that 'smartness' can be measured. With this threshold having been passed, the roles and methods of education and learning are being reassessed everywhere.

19. Artificial microbes enhance intelligence Mikrob tiruan meningkatkan kecerdasan

Genetic codes have been written for new microbes which improve neural performance when co-habiting the brain.

Kecerdasan Buatan Artificial Intelligence- Posted by Ensiklopedia Pendidikan Malaysia
Kecerdasan Buatan (bahasa Inggeris: Artificial Intelligence) atau lebih dikenali sebagai AI adalah kajian dan kejuruteraan mesin cerdas yang mampu melakukan fungsi-fungsi dan ciri-ciri pemikiran manusia. Konsep AI bermula dari zaman purba, tetapi kemunculan komputer digital pada abad ke-20 membawa konsep ini kepada suatu kemungkinan. AI telah difahami sebagai satu bidang ilmu komputer di pertengahan tahun 1950-an.

Istilah AI telah diterapkan dalam program dan sistem komputer yang mampu melakukan tugas-tugas yang lebih kompleks daripada program komputer biasa, walaupun masih jauh dapat menandingi pemikiran manusia. Walaupun masih jauh daripada kepintaran manusia, kemampuan AI kini digunakan secara meluas di bidang-bidang seperti pemprosesan maklumat, permainan komputer, keselamatan negara, perdagangan elektronik, dan sistem diagnostik.

Program AI mempunyai banyak aplikasi. Ia digunakan oleh institusi kewangan, saintis, ahli psikologi, pengamal perubatan, jurutera rekabentuk, perancang bandar, dan perkhidmatan keselamatan, dan pelbagai lagi. Teknik AI juga diterapkan dalam sistem yang digunakan untuk melayari Internet.

Program AI cenderung digunakan secara khusus untuk tugas-tugas tertentu. Ia boleh digunakan dalam permainan komputer, meramal pergerakan saham, menafsirkan foto-foto, mendiagnosis penyakit, merancang perjalanan, menterjemah bahasa, melakarkan analogi, membantu membina mesin yang kompleks, mengajar logik, menulis muzik, membuat gambar, dan belajar untuk melakukan tugas-tugas dengan lebih baik.

Program AI menjalankan beberapa tugas-tugas ini dengan baik. Contoh paling terkenal kegunaan AI adalah superkomputer Deep Blue yang mengalahkan juara catur dunia Garry Kasparov pada tahun 1997. Dalam permainan catur ini, Deep Blue memanfaatkan pemprosesan selari (pemprosesan aplikasi komputer yang berjalan serentak dan berkait) untuk memproses 200 juta pergerakan catur per saat. Program AI lazimnya lebih baik daripada manusia dalam meramal harga saham, dan ia boleh mencipta kejayaan jangka panjang dalam rancangan perniagaan.

Program AI digunakan dalam perdagangan elektronik untuk mengesan kemungkinan penipuan, menggunakan algoritma yang kompleks, dan digunakan untuk transaksi kewangan bernilai jutaan setiap hari. Program AI juga dapat meniru perilaku manusia yang kreatif. Sebagai contoh, muzik yang dihasilkan oleh program AI sukar dibezakan dengan komposisi oleh komposer terkenal.

Terdapat beberapa cara yang digunakan untuk membina kecerdasan buatan buat masa ini. Contoh-contoh utama termasuk :

Logik Kabur : Menggunakan logik kabur untuk mencapai pilihan optimum. Berdasarkan intuisi manusia dan sangat mudah untuk direka.

Jaringan Neural (bahasa Inggeris: Neural Network): Dimodel dari interaksi antara neuron sebenar. Berkemampuan untuk belajar dari set data-data sedia ada untuk meramal output.

Algoritma Genetik : Menggunakan model berasaskan konsep evolusi (mutasi, perkongsian genetik, keupayaan hidup) untuk menghasilkan penyelesaian termudah untuk sesuatu masalah.

Oleh kerana bidang ini masih muda berbanding dengan cabang-cabang sains lain masih tiada jaminan cara yang mana yang akan boleh menghasilkan AI yang sebenar (true AI); AI yang mampu meniru 100% cara manusia berfikir.